Overview of Milk
Milk is the most valuable protein food that is widely consumed by people all over the world. The milk as a raw food is easily available on various dairy farms that are processed to increase the variety of nutrients. Milk provides essential nutrients and is an important source of dietary energy, high-quality proteins and fats. Milk can make a significant contribution to the required nutrient intakes for calcium, magnesium, selenium, riboflavin, vitamin B12 and pantothenic acid. Milk processing business is very lucrative and it is a high earning job.
Milk and milk products are nutrient-dense foods and their consumption can add diversity to plant-based diets. Animal milk can play an important role in the diets of children in populations with very low fat intakes and limited access to other animal source foods.
Milk is a valuable nutritious food that has a short shelf-life and requires careful handling. Milk is highly perishable because it is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms – particularly bacterial pathogens – that can cause spoilage and diseases in consumers. Milk processing allows the preservation of milk for days, weeks or months and helps to reduce food-borne illness.
The usable life of milk can be extended for several days through techniques such as cooling (which is the factor most likely to influence the quality of raw milk) or fermentation. Pasteurization is a heat treatment process that extends the usable life of milk and reduces the numbers of possible pathogenic microorganisms to levels at which they do not represent a significant health hazard.
Milk can be processed further to convert it into high-value, concentrated and easily transportable dairy products with long shelf-lives, such as butter, cheese and ghee. Dairy products are generally defined as food produced from the milk of mammals. Processing of dairy products gives small-scale dairy producers higher cash incomes than selling raw milk and offers better opportunities to reach regional and urban markets. Milk processing can also help to deal with seasonal fluctuations in milk supply. The transformation of raw milk into processed milk and products can benefit entire communities by generating off-farm jobs in milk collection, transportation, processing and marketing.
Benefits of starting up Milk Production Line
Nowadays, the various modern high advanced milk processing machines are beneficial for any milk processing plants.
- It increases the quality of the products.
- It reduces the workload of farmers and dependency on workers.
- It helps for making products faster and easier.
- The highly advanced machines are easy to clean with less physical effort due to that milk plants always get clean.
- These advanced machines can be operated 24 hours for making good quality products.
- It helps to get more output with few workers.
- It helps to keep product quality maintain.
- With the help of advanced machines, it is easy to provide low-cost product to the people.
Is Milk Business Profitable?
- The demand for milk and milk products is high in all seasons. It is an all-time active market. Milk is a basic necessity in Indian households, and any other product cannot substitute the demand for milk. There is also a huge demand for milk in restaurants, sweet shops, tea shops, and small and big businesses.
- The dairy farm business in India does not require employing skilled labour. Therefore, the labour expenses in this business are comparatively low.
- The milk business involves eco-friendly practices and does not cause harm to the environment. You do not have to spend huge amounts for complying with the environmental laws and regulations.
- The animal waste can be decomposed in the Biogas plants to produce natural gas and can also be used as an organic manure for growing crops and fodder for animals.
- The demand for milk and milk products rises above the normal levels during the time of festivals in India. Therefore, you can make an extra profit when the market is at its peak.
- Animals or livestock are the main factor of this business. You can get insurance for the animals to cover the medical expenses if the animals get infected.
Dairy Farming Business
- Starting a dairy farm is ordinarily referred to as ‘an all-season opportunity’ as there is a steady demand for milk and milk products in India or anyplace in the globe. It demands 14 to 18 hours per day towards the business. Milk production in India is always on a high with over 3% – 4% increase each year.
- For all these reasons, the dairy farming business is emerging as a thriving market for business people. The operation of a dairy farm is an amalgamation of extensive efforts, a significant amount of time, and useful resources. Along with these come a multitude of exercises such as cleaning the farm, management of sheds, feeding the cattle, or even the washing and milking of animals.
- Let’s now get some crucial information on the various steps involved in starting an enterprise in dairy farming. There are a few essential tasks to be completed before beginning an enterprise in dairy farming. They are:
- Consulting with experts/professionals and market leaders conducting thorough business research
- Focusing on the importance of a safe and healthy animal infrastructure
- Initiating feeding and waste management programs
- Obtaining licences from the authorities concerned with funding or taking business loans
- The finalising of a name for your company
- Registering your business as a corporation or as an MSME.
- To start a small dairy farming enterprise, entrepreneurs must select fewer cattle in the beginning. Later on, the number of cattle may be increased, as per demand.
- The milk business owner needs a registration certificate for their company when registering the company as a sole proprietorship partnership, limited liability partnership, public NGO, private limited, or other.
- A system of irrigation to feed the grass
- Storage room for manure and feed
- Milking store
- Sterile facility for the storage of milk and pasteurizing purpose
- Barns or sheds
- Other equipment and machinery.
- In addition, when business owners are learning how to start a dairy business in India, they have to get permits, licenses and approvals from the relevant authorities. A license is required to allow crossing animals between states under certain circumstances, such as vaccinations, sickness, etc.
Classification of Dairy Plant
Precisely looking at the basic production features and core operations, dairy plants could be categorized as liquid milk processing plants, products manufacturing plants or combination of these two (Composite Dairy Plants).
a) Liquid milk Processing Plant: In such dairy plant raw milk received at dock, is chilled, processed (pasteurized) and packed for sale. These plants directly procure milk from identified milk sheds or other sources. This type of plant has low value addition but the liquidity of money is very high. The liquidity is better because payment for raw milk is done after 7 or 10 days, whereas realization is either in advance or on the same day. Secondly, the realization money is circulated on daily basis creating an edge for low requirement of working capital.
b) Product Manufacturing Dairy Plants: Raw milk is transformed into value added milk and milk products by employing suitable technologies and using proper equipment. Manufacture of value added products improve the profitability of the overall milk business. Other advantage lies in the conversion of perishable milk into long shelf life products. This aspect has high impact due to perishable and seasonal nature of milk production. Long shelf life products are also suitable for distant marketing.
c) Composite Dairy Plant: Most of the dairy plants do have facilities for processing and packing of liquid milk and milk products. In this way, dairy plant can be benefited for high liquidity along with the advantage of increased shelf life and value addition. Such milk plants are more viable and sustainable.
Planning Considerations for Dairy Plant
Planning for dairy plant should consider following aspects:
a) Forecasting for milk business with regards to milk procurement and marketing;
b) Market analysis for product demand;
c) Availability & requirement of land, topography to suit disposal of waste and communication;
d) Analysis for requirement and availability of water; and
e) No objection from municipal, pollution and aviation authorities.
Depending upon the status of above-mentioned factors, dairy plant of desired capacity could be designed for processing and production of selected products. Accordingly full consideration is to be given for selection of plant location, design and layout.
Eight steps to follow to start a profitable Milk Processing Business
1. Create a Business Plan
- Entrepreneurs should focus on the business plan at first before executing it. The plan layout helps prepare the company for any unpredictable events and prepares them to accomplish their targets less time and significantly less investment.
- However, it is the need of the hour to emphasize the plan before setting your business because any small twist and turn can lead your business to uncountable losses and the deterioration of the customers’ health.
- The efficiency and production of milk processing depend upon the plan concerning the milk processing business in India. Negligence, by any means, can prove to be a disaster for the business entrepreneurs. Hence, starting from essential permits and licenses and registration of the milk processing business in India, every small detail should be given. Business plans often act as a security valve for enterprises.
2. Choose a Location for Milk Processing Factory
- The milk processing business in India requires ample space for buildings, future business expansion, parking lot, empty cans, a manufacturing company, packaging unit, etc. About two acres of land is appropriate for milk processing.
- However, the plant’s location must be closer to the milk-producing area in a product manufacturing unit. The site’s background should have proximity to all the required facilities like road/rail facilities, services, water, electricity, raw materials, social infrastructure, etc.
- Proper drainage maintenance is a must. The unit can either be an owned one or taken on rent. Apart from all this, special care is needed regarding its workers’ safety and working in a secure area. The building should be well equipped with all the necessary precautions to avoid any mis- happening.
3. Name your Milk Processing Business
Select a name that people can relate to your Milk processing company. Do not forget to check the availability of a similar domain name to the company name. This helps you in creating a website similar to the company name.
4. Make the Business Legally Compliant
Registration of the milk processing business with the registrar of firms or ROC is a must depending upon the type/form of business you choose. You can either get it registered as a sole proprietorship or any other form of the company depending upon the business organization’s capital infused and budget. You can also choose the appropriate name for the manufacturing unit and can get it registered in that name.
Permits & Licenses–
- NOC from the fire department
- GST registration
- MSME registration
- Trade License
- FSSAI food license
- BIS standards
- Special permission from PCB
- MMPO registration with the Commissioner, Dairy Development, concerned state, or the authority.
- Insurance policy
- License from Factory inspector for installation of the boiler.
5. Machine & Equipment for Milk Processing
The Milk Production Plant basically comprises of:
- Milk Reception Section
- Storage Tank for chilling of raw material before process
- Plate Type Pasteurizing Section / Cream separation/ Homogenizing Section
- Utility Section( Hot water Generator, Refrigeration System)
- Storage of processed milk in storage tank
- Packaging Section (Pouch, Bottle Packing).
6. Cost (investment) of start Milk Processing Plant
The cost of Milk Processing Plant depends on the capacity of Milk, the business owner wants to process and the milk availability on per day basis. The approximate price of a small scale set up starts from 4 lakhs onwards and it can go up to 15-18 lakhs for a medium or large scale set up.
7. Milk Production Process
The milk manufacturing process can be summarized as follows:
- Collecting – Raw milk is collected and cooled at a particular temperature to make it ready for further processing.
- Separating – Any kind of sediment or debris is removed from milk in this step. A separator separates lighter milk and heavier milk fat to give cream and skim milk.
- Pasteurizing – The extracted milk is heated to a certain temperature for killing off the pathogenic microorganisms present in it. It also increases the time for which you can store the milk in a tank.
- Homogenizing – Homogenizing, as the name suggests, is the process to make milk even throughout. It is done by breaking down the heavier particles present in milk.
- Storage – The milk is then stored in a storage tank for further delivery either to the plants or the manufacturers of dairy products. This is the last step in the process of milk production.
Milk plants can be small, medium or big depending on the investment made by the owner. There are number of dairy products like ghee, cream, butter, toned milk, double toned milk and skimmed milk that are also manufactured in milk plant. Milk is initially dumped in big milk tank from the milk tankers after that it chilled in a chilling unit. This chilled milk is pasteurized in the milk pasteurizer and cream is divided from the cream separator which gets skimmed milk. Milk is generally categorized as toned milk, skimmed milk, double toned milk or full cream milk.
8. Promote your Products
There is an immense number of ways by which you may sell your milk processed products. You may choose to put it on an e-commerce website or sell it directly in the stores. However, in the current scenario, most of these entrepreneurs are opting for online portals for selling their products like Grofers, BigBasket, Amazon pantry, milk basket, etc. Listing your products in these portals is an efficient way to sell your products.
You may also choose to sell it directly to dairy booths, stores, agencies, etc. Apart from this, you may also put your products on your website.
FSSAI Role in Milk Processing Business in India
- The food control safety measure is required to bridge the gap between safe food and adulterated food. The food industry needs more flexible standards and efficient in producing and marketing food, thus ultimately serving the consumers with a protective sheet. FSSAI’s role in food quality is essential for smooth functioning.
- Maintaining the food quality standards to ensure safety and satisfaction to every consumer is every Food/beverage business entrepreneur’s aim. India’s food safety and standards authority (FSSAI Registration) play a significant role in controlling and maintaining the safety procedures. FSSAI ensures that all the safety standards complied before floating the milk products out for sale.
- Financing to food processing/milk processing falls under priority sector lending. The loans to these units meeting the criteria of MSME are classified under the MSME sector. Milk processing units can be financed by any scheduled commercial banks, Regional Rural Banks, and Cooperative Banks.
- Important terms and conditions of financing need to be discussed in detail while borrowing money from these institutions. The promoters of these units can approach any financing bank for finance.
- It is mandatory to take a bank loan to avail of various schemes/regulations of government. Therefore, the entrepreneurs who are desirous of availing subsidy should also adhere to the means of finance, which is the quantum of bank loan & margin under the specific scheme. Apart from taking loans, there are other ways to arrange for finances like crowdfunding, angel investor, etc.